All people born since 1951 have received some exposure to radiation due to consequences related to weapons testing. Some people who received higher doses of radiation may have a higher risk of cancer from this exposure, although scientists at CDC and NCI believe that this risk is small for most people. Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, performance and explosive capacity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons testing provides practical information on how weapons work, how detonations are affected by different conditions, and how personnel, structures and equipment are affected when subjected to nuclear explosions.
However, nuclear tests have often been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength. Many tests have been openly political in intention; most nuclear-weapon states publicly declared their nuclear status through a nuclear test. Most countries have signed and ratified the partial nuclear test ban, which came into force in October 1963.Mushroom clouds, such as the 74-kiloton test HOOD on July 5, 1957 (detonated from a balloon at 1,500 feet altitude), are a universally recognized icon of nuclear explosions. In total megatonne of nuclear tests, from 1945 to 1992, 520 atmospheric nuclear explosions (including eight underwater) were carried out with a total yield of 545 megatons, with a peak that occurred in 1961-1962, when the United States and the Soviet Union detonated 340 megatons in the atmosphere, while the number of tests underground nuclear weapons carried out in the period from 1957 to 1992 was 1,352 explosions with a total yield of 90 Mt.
These categories depend mainly on variables such as their age at exposure (generally, children up to 10 years old were the category most at risk during atmospheric nuclear tests), their location between 1951 and 1962, their main diet, their source of milk (since cow's milk was the main source of contamination), and the amount of milk consumed (Lyon et al. It also offers a brochure from the 1950s on the consequences and several images related to nuclear weapons tests and rain shelters. The doses related to the consequences received as a result of that test on Bikini Atoll are the highest in the history of global nuclear tests. Other cases of intense radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems are represented by French nuclear tests carried out during 1966-1996 in French Polynesia, more specifically in the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa, in the southeastern part of the Tuamotu-Gambier archipelago.
Nuclear tests were usually conducted in remote locations, at least 100 kilometers from human populations. Apparently, some of the radioactive dust in the southern part of the Semipalatinsk region, accumulated between 1964 and 1981, was the result of nuclear weapons tests conducted by China in Lop Nur. However, by the 1950s, the United States had established a dedicated test site on its own territory (Nevada Test Site) and was also using a site in the Marshall Islands (Pacific Proving Grounds) to conduct extensive atomic and nuclear tests. From 1966 to 1974, France exploded 41 nuclear weapons in aerial tests in French Polynesia, the collection of 118 islands and atolls that is part of France.
The United States is one of the important examples of evaluating the correlation between the increased incidence rate of thyroid cancer and continent-scale radioactive contamination with 131I, a radioactive isotope that was released in large quantities during nuclear tests conducted at major test sites, Nevada. Radionuclides with a long half-life are still present in the environment, but at a relatively low level of activity, according to a DOE-NV publication entitled “A Perspective on Atmospheric Nuclear Tests in Nevada. There may also have been at least three suspected but unrecognized nuclear explosions (see list of alleged nuclear tests), including the Vela Incident. The 1962 Sedan test was a United States experiment in which nuclear weapons were used to excavate large quantities of earth.