For survivors of nuclear war, this persistent radiation hazard could pose a serious threat for up to 1 to 5 years after the attack. The most immediate effect of a nuclear explosion is an intense burst of nuclear radiation, mainly gamma rays and neutrons. This direct radiation occurs in the weapon's own nuclear reactions and lasts much less than a second. Lethal direct radiation extends almost a mile from a 10-kiloton explosion.
However, with most weapons, direct radiation is of little importance because other lethal effects generally span greater distances. A major exception is the enhanced radiation weapon, or neutron bomb, which maximizes direct radiation and minimizes other destructive effects. EMP damage can occur tens, hundreds, or thousands of kilometers away from a nuclear explosion, depending on the performance of the weapon and the altitude of the detonation. Current thinking holds that dinosaurs became extinct as a result of climate change caused by atmospheric dust from an asteroid impact; in fact, that hypothesis helped boost winter nuclear research.
Most of the material damage caused by a nuclear gust of air is caused by a combination of high static overpressures and strong winds. The CDC website provides information on the radioactive consequences of nuclear weapons tests conducted in the atmosphere around the world (global weapons tests) during the 1940s and 1950s. The ACS regulations against the potential consequences of nuclear reactors focused on the power plant's capacity for the maximum credible accident (MCA). A total nuclear war would leave survivors with little means of recovery and could lead to a total collapse of society.
Since the end of nuclear weapons tests on the ground, daily radiation in air readings from monitoring sites has decreased. The difference is that the rays of a nuclear explosion are so intense that they do not need concentration to ignite flammable materials. Radioactive material, mostly fission products, released into the environment by nuclear explosions. This notion referred to the nuclear reaction of two atmospheric nitrogen atoms that form carbon and one oxygen atom, with an associated release of energy.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) The CTBT is a legally binding global ban on the testing of nuclear explosives. We have observed that more than half of the population of the United States could die directly in an all-out nuclear war. Radius of Destruction The distance from a nuclear explosion within which destruction is near total, often taken as the 5 pounds per square inch overpressure zone. In a split second, the dense shock front obscures the fireball and continues to move beyond it, now expanding outwards, free of the fireball, causing a reduction in the light emanating from a nuclear detonation.
But a nuclear war would involve hundreds or thousands of explosions, creating a situation for which we simply have no relevant experience.