Following Senate approval, the treaty that entered into force on October 10, 1963 banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. In August 1945, when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, World War II came to an end. The date of January 22 marks a victory for humanity. That is the day when the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons comes into force, the day when nuclear weapons are banned.
On this day, the world's most indiscriminate and inhumane weapons will finally be banned globally. These conferences, which included the participation of a large majority of States, the International Committee of the Red Cross and hundreds of representatives of non-governmental organizations, coordinated mainly by the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), played an important role in increasing the demand for measures urgent to advance negotiations on nuclear disarmament. The Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty banned testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater, but allowed underground testing and did not require checkpoints, on-site inspections and any international oversight bodies. These include commitments not to develop, test, produce, acquire, possess, stockpile, use or threaten to use nuclear weapons.
Attempting to ban nuclear weapons through a treaty that does not include any of the countries that actually possess nuclear weapons is unlikely to produce any results. If that State has eliminated its nuclear weapons before becoming a party to the treaty, it requires verification of such elimination by an unspecified competent international authority, and the state must also conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA to provide credible assurance that it has not diverted nuclear material and has no undeclared nuclear material or activities. The Treaty also obliges States parties to provide adequate assistance to persons affected by the use or testing of nuclear weapons, as well as to take necessary and appropriate environmental sanitation measures in areas under their jurisdiction or control contaminated as a result of activities related to the testing or use of weapons nuclear. By providing avenues for the elimination of nuclear weapons, the Treaty is an indispensable element in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons.
For the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty to enter into force, it must be ratified by all nuclear powers and 44 members of the Conference on Disarmament who own nuclear reactors. The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), or Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, is the first legally binding international agreement that comprehensively bans nuclear weapons, with the ultimate goal of eliminating them completely. The initiative to seek a legally binding instrument to ban nuclear weapons is the result of the discourse focused on promoting greater awareness and understanding of the humanitarian consequences that would result from any use of nuclear weapons. The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons is the first globally applicable multilateral agreement to ban nuclear weapons outright.
For nuclear-weapon States joining the treaty, it establishes a time frame for negotiations leading to the verified and irreversible elimination of their nuclear weapons program. The Anglo-American and Soviet proposals for a draft treaty came to resemble each other in late 1962 and, after only 10 days of debate in Moscow in July-August 1963, representatives of the three nuclear powers pledged for an “unlimited period not to conduct further tests in the atmosphere, underwater or in the clearance. This strong support for nuclear disarmament by the South African government will be even more crucial as the Treaty enters into force and becomes binding international law. South Africa, in particular, has long supported nuclear disarmament, starting with the fact that it was the first country in the world to voluntarily dissolve its nuclear weapons program in the early 1990s.
It took until 1977 to begin negotiations on a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which would extend the ban to underground tests, although the previous year the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union had agreed on a treaty banning peaceful nuclear explosions, apparently carried out for the purpose of civil engineering projects. . .