When it comes to nuclear safety, the primary responsibility lies with the organization that operates the nuclear power plant. This organization is responsible for conducting internal and external self-evaluations, as well as ensuring that all safety standards set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are met. The IAEA safety standards cover all aspects of safety during the lifecycle of nuclear power plants, from safety management to technical aspects. In addition, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for providing oversight through inspection activities and compliance measures when necessary.
The NRC issues federal licenses to build and operate nuclear power plants, and its mission is to protect public health and safety by ensuring that each plant meets the technical and administrative requirements established by the agency. The possibility of a loss of cooling, which could lead to the melting of the nuclear reactor core, has been studied in detail in order to understand its physical and chemical possibilities, as well as its biological effects. To ensure nuclear safety worldwide, international cooperation is carried out under the auspices of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). The USQ process allows a contractor to make physical and procedural changes to a nuclear facility and conduct tests and experiments without prior approval, as long as these changes do not cause a USQ.
All countries operating nuclear power plants have a nuclear safety inspection and all of them work closely with the IAEA. The main safety concern has always been the possibility of an uncontrolled release of radioactive material, leading to contamination and consequent off-site radiation exposure.The DOE expects that the provisions of the contract will be used to provide more details on the implementation of basic security requirements, such as preparing a documented security analysis, developing technical safety requirements, and implementing a USQ process. The plan emerged from intensive consultations with Member States, but not with industry, and was described as a meeting point and plan to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide.The use of probabilistic safety analysis makes it possible to make risk-based decisions regarding maintenance and monitoring programs, so that appropriate attention is paid to the health of every piece of equipment in the plant. The Committee focuses primarily on the safety aspects of existing power reactors, other nuclear installations and new power reactors; it also considers the safety implications of scientific and technical advances in future reactor technologies and designs.Apart from Chernobyl, no nuclear worker or member of the public has ever died as a result of radiation exposure due to an incident at a commercial nuclear reactor.
In order to ensure safe operation of a nuclear installation, Operating Limits are established which include limiting control settings and limiting operating conditions.The role of the World Nuclear Association Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing Cooperation Working Group (CORDEL) and the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are described on the Nuclear Energy Cooperation (NEA) information page. Take steps, as appropriate, to place or maintain the facility in a safe condition until a safety assessment of the situation is completed.