A nuclear power plant uses uranium fuel to produce steam to generate electricity. This process converts uranium into other radioactive materials. If an accident occurs at a nuclear power plant, heat and pressure build up and steam, along with radioactive materials, can be released. The main impacts of nuclear accidents were not caused by radiation exposure, but were due to psychological and socio-economic factors resulting from misconceptions and fears about radiation, and could therefore have been largely avoided.
The system design of nuclear power plants built in the late 1960s raised operational safety issues and raised concerns that a serious reactor accident could release large quantities of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and the environment. The development has caused international concern, mainly because Russian bombardments caused a fire at the plant of the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant in southeastern Ukraine, causing fears of a nuclear accident. Should the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant melt, the radiation would travel with the winds. Nuclear power plants are not self-sufficient islands, in addition to putting energy into the power grid, they need to be able to take electricity from it.
In 1970, there were doubts about the ability of the emergency cooling system of a nuclear reactor core to cope with the effects of an accident due to loss of coolant and consequent melting of the fuel core; the topic became popular in technical and popular presses. In a speech expressing concern about the attack on the nuclear plant, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky said that if an explosion occurred at the facility it would be the end for everyone. Grossi also clearly stated that there is no current threat of nuclear collapse at that facility. Power reactors, including the Deployable Electric Power Reactor, a larger-scale mobile version of TRIGA for power generation in disaster areas and military missions, and the TRIGA Power System, a small power plant and heat source for small and remote community use, have been submitted by stakeholders engineers and share the safety features of TRIGA due to the uranium zirconium hydride fuel used.
While pressurized water reactors are more susceptible to nuclear fusion in the absence of active safety measures, this is not a universal feature of civil nuclear reactors. The most serious nuclear accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union). Several factors, including reactor design issues and a poor safety culture, led to a failed safety test that resulted in two explosions, a fire that lasted more than a week, and the release of a large amount of radioactive material. The term nuclear fusion is not officially defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
The American Nuclear Society has commented on the IMT-2 accident, that despite the melting of approximately one third of the fuel, the reactor vessel itself maintained its integrity and contained the damaged fuel. The safety of nuclear power plants in Ukraine is very delicate because the country, which was then part of the Soviet Union, was the scene of the worst nuclear accident in the world on April 26, 1986, when an explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, north of Kiev, sent a radioactive cloud over much of Europe. As a result, three cores largely melted over the next three days and there were several hydrogen explosions, as well as the release of nuclear material into the environment. .